Robin Vilain
videogame designer
author of commotions
créateur de jeu

Quick Thought Emission

I’ve been working on several long articles for some time and I was a bit frustrated that in the meantime, my blog saw no activity. Luckily, the opportunity to talk about something presented itself a few days ago, when Brendan Keogh mentioned QTEs in a tweet. I replied half-jokingly that maybe it was time for us to reconsider the accepted truth that ‘QTEs are bad’ – and a small discussion emerged, which somewhat surprised me! But it also prompted me to think more seriously about what I meant, and to elaborate on that initial suggestion.

Quick Time Events, in the past, – I was about to write ‘traditionally’ and, indeed, it isn’t unlike a tradition at this point – have been mocked, ridiculed, for a whole lot of reasons. The most obvious one is that they’re perceived as ‘lazy’; when the character is about to perform a spectacular action, instead of developing the systems to read and interpret a series of inputs from the player, developers just assigned the whole thing to a single button press. Another criticism is that they lessen player agency (you rarely have any choice but to agree to the prompt to continue playing, and have no say in the result) and offer cheap, unfought-for, instantaneous gratification (which, if you’ve read anything about gamification, you’ll know makes for ‘lower enjoyment in the long run’). They’re also just plain stressful sometimes.

The question I ask myself now is: are those things actually inherently bad?

Of course, it’s easier to develop a game that asks for a pre-determined sequence of inputs and converts it into a choreographed action scene, than one where the player is given from the get-go enough tools to recreate that same scene step by step. But, beyond production considerations, it’s also a matter of simply making the game you want to make: the latter game is wildly different from the former. In one, you’re using a limited set of inputs to perform a limited set of actions, but the pool of available actions seems infinite; in the other, you’re picking from a large pool of inputs to perform a large, but explicitly finite, number of actions. The bigger that number, the more complex the game becomes; and although one might argue that this allows creative play, and even reward it, there definitely is a tipping point where the quantity of available options becomes too overwhelming in a stressful context and the player falls back to known combos. Looking at the most skilled players of Devil May Cry or Bayonetta demonstrate their talent, it doesn’t take long before the protagonists’ actions start to loop. For the argument’s sake, we could disregard that vague and abstract plateau; but even then, it simply is impossible to hard-code into a game the literally infinite actions that could be scripted, animated, and assigned to button prompts for any given situation. So the choice is between highly-authored scenes arbitrarily mapped to inputs, and a lesser number of individual actions that are also authored (but individually) and also arbitrarily mapped to inputs, except you combine them in any order you want. Neither seems indisputably better than the other to me.

Next: Quick Time Events rob the player of some agency. Yes, this is true. But I think seeing this as purely negative comes from looking at games in a certain way; do games really need to offer agency? Is the concept of agency a scale on which to measure the value of a game? I personally don’t think interactivity is the be-all and end-all of videogames. So what, if a game’s main focus is its story? So what if it is first-and-foremost a visual experience, or an auditory one, or a textual one… and uses interactivity merely as a complement, maybe to support the other aspects or maybe just as an extra? Choice isn’t all that crucial either. In fact, the absence of choice is often just as important as its presence. Of course, agency is more than just interactivity or choice; but my point is, it doesn’t really mean anything, without any context, that a player doesn’t feel in control, that they don’t feel responsible for how a game plays out. It can be a good or a bad thing, and it certainly doesn’t mean that they’re not, in fact, playing a game. A game is a game because it was made a game. Putting such a strong focus on agency limits the spectrum of games that we can conceive. I want to be able to play games in which I am mostly a spectator! games that lead me through their scenery! And, of course, games that only use QTEs parsimoniously, and only use them in very specific situations, when it doesn’t alter my feeling of agency at all.

It’s also true that a successful press of a single button is often rewarded by a disproportionately spectacular move. My reaction to that is pretty much the same: so what? We’re not talking about extrinsic, manipulative, currency-based systems that manufacture artificial glee through gratuitous endorphin-producing loot drops and other ‘+1’s. And we’re not talking about activities that shape one’s life and identity, like learning about something new or getting along within a work environment. Yes, there are countless TED videos about how someone will enjoy something more, and get more out of it, if they worked enough to obtain it; and yes, QTEs can be followed by bombastic sequences – or emotional moments, or huge plot twists, etc. – even though the player didn’t do anything to ‘earn’ them. But I’m opposed to the idea that players must earn everything they get from a game. Again, it all depends on the game you want to make! It’s okay if it’s just shallow entertainment! And, again, I’m purposefully taking extreme examples here; I think the QTE form can be used to great effect in trying to convey meaning.

I think the real reason that Quick Time Events are so universally rejected lies beyond those arguments. After all, I don’t recall anyone slamming Osu! Tatakae! Ouendan despite it being, literally, an unending stream of QTE-like interactions that gave way to ludicrously over-the-top scenes. (I know I’m reaching here, but bear with me.) I think we are so used to the way 1st- and 3rd-person games behave, their grammar is so ingrained within our brains, that it dictates how we approach them; and, specifically, we expect to directly control the character’s movement. I can only think of very few games that feature a player character whose movement isn’t directly controlled by the player; not only that, but the character’s movement is often the core interaction. It’s the very first thing you learn to do in tutorials (or maybe only after being told how to look around). So, when that fundamental ‘gameplay brick’ is removed from below our feet, when direct control is wretched from our hands, it feels like an insult; like a breach of contract. My agency! you may cry out in anger. Damn devs couldn’t find a way to make this scene without taking control away! But once you accept that such a contract never really existed in the first place, I think you’ll find that QTEs are actually totally fine, and, more often than not, a perfectly valid artistic decision.


Hi! My name’s Robin. I’m super passionate about videogames.

I think they can be meaningful on many levels – from the authors' ideas to the players' interpretations, from the intimate harmony of mechanics echoing each other to the booming contribution to greater social or cultural contexts.

I love games that are deep, inspiring, yet still engaging enough for the players to seek out and even analyse these meanings. When the overarching purpose shines through, you know you’re playing something unique and beautiful.

This is what I aspire to create: experiences that make players stop and think. Below is some of my past work, in which I've tried to put this into practice.

Logo JMC

At JMC Academy, I taught game design and development, mentoring students as they worked on their final project: pre-production, planning and management, production, promotion. This also involved teaching them how to approach design critically and meaningfully, rather than conventionally or arbitrarily. I also supervised prototyping and programming classes focused on getting a better understanding of Unity and C#.

Teaching was an opportunity for me to articulate and expand on my design aesthetics, and to introduce students to kinds of games and interactive works that they’d not heard of before. Seeing their horizons broaden was truly rewarding and led them to experiment with new ideas, while still maintaining a sense of ownership and uniqueness. This was a group of people with different outlooks on games and different goals, who taught me as much as I taught them. I encouraged them to cherish their own perspectives, to cultivate their own individuality, and to imbue their projects with it.

Logo Leda

During the same period as when I teaching at JMC, I also worked with Productive Procrastination on Leda, a web+mobile platform for teaching ethical leadership practices and empathy, with a focus on inducing long-term positive behaviour change. While I was initially brought on board as a game designer, my role quickly evolved to include development, art direction and management.

This project was a massive undertaking backed by a university and several major companies. It was crucial to balance the needs of those investors with our mission. I strove to design games that were accessible to anyone (including people usually put off by them), and that included Leda’s principles as intrinsic play elements. This approach then extended to the scripts and storyboards of animated shorts, the motion design of interview videos, and more broadly the UI and UX of the whole platform; all led by the push for consistency and pedagogy across all of the content.

In 2015 and early 2016, I worked on a variety of playful live events: murder parties, pop-up escape games, historical investigative mysteries… I also designed and/or consulted on small-scale videogames and board games. During this time, I focused on how to better introduce play concepts to different audiences, and analysed reactions on more experimental projects. As part of my push to broaden my skill set, I designed and developed several websites (including this one).

This exploration of new fields and desire to step out of my comfort zone led me to move to Melbourne in April, where I was welcomed by the local game dev scene. I continued progress on personal projects and started working at Mind Games, a board game store, which provided yet another opportunity to get a better understanding of the kinds of audiences interested in games – from experts to newcomers.

Logo Innovation

Innovation: Age of Crafting is a mobile game that was recently released on Windows Phone, and will soon be out on Android and iOS. Tiles representing scientific and cultural landmarks of humanity’s evolution through the ages are arranged on a grid; the player must slide them to combine them, discovering more advanced technologies.

I worked on the game as a freelancer; when I arrived on the project, only the basic concept had been determined. I fleshed it out and expanded it, then designed the game’s rule variants and all of 125+ levels they’re used in, aiming for a constantly renewed experience and a welcoming learning curve.

Logo The Crew

In 2013, I worked as a mission designer on The Crew, at Ivory Tower. I collaborated with the environment artists to find beautiful locations within the game world, then defined mission rules that were adequate for the player’s level. I tried to subvert the existing mechanics, to suggest emergent narratives; I took advantage of the game’s features, such as off-road driving, but was careful not to be confined to them either.

I also worked on the exposition of the game’s structure, which had never been seen before. The tutorials and informative screens had to effectively teach the player how to navigate the many systems, without being an obstacle to free-form play. Predicting the player’s progression and timing the delivery of explanations accordingly was crucial.

Logo Rainbow Six

My post-grad internship was at Ubisoft’s Editorial, which oversees the development of the company’s games and ensures a high level of quality, providing advice and feedback to the dev teams – I was assigned to Rainbow Six. I studied the portrayal of crowd panic and tactical squad interventions in films and games, and derived key points and guidelines. I also played each build and offered suggestions on how to make the experience more cohesive and intense.

While I focused primarily on Rainbow Six, I also intervened on other projects, among which Far Cry 3 and Splinter Cell: Blacklist. I helped balance the multiplayer modes of both games; on FC3, I also played the whole game several times to give feedback from an external point of view, and specifically whether the introductory sections properly explained every aspect of the game.

Logo Flux

FluX is my final school project; it’s a 2-player digital board game, played on Microsoft’s PixelSense touch table. Each player owns a base that releases ink; by placing wooden pawns on the screen, they create currents and obstacles. The aim is to lead the ink towards neutral bases scattered on the board to convert them into new ink sources, and then to capture the opponent’s main base.

My contribution was quite broad: I elaborated of the main concept, designed board layouts, programmed a vector field and fluid mechanics to handle ink propagation, and implemented the pawn identification system – using PixelSense’s virtual reality API within Unity 3D. This project started out as an art installation motivated by a question: how to make human-human interactions through a digital medium feel natural, transparent and even physical?